Saturday, May 23, 2020

Integrated Theories Describes Crime Better - 1930 Words

Scholars have supported classical theory as the best descriptive model of crime. This paper makes a comparison to different theories of crime in comparison with the classical theory of crime with intent to arrive at a position in support or against the stance of these other scholars, that classical theory is the best descriptive model of crime. Classical Theory, which developed in the mid 18th century, was based on utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crimes and Punishments (1763–64), Jeremy Bentham, inventor of the panopticon, and other classical school philosophers argued that people have free will to choose how to act; that deterrence is based upon the notion of the human being as a hedonist who seeks pleasure and†¦show more content†¦Under certain conditions, they are likely to respond to this strain through crime. The strains leading to crime, however, may not be linked to goal blockage (or deprivation of valued stimuli) but also to the presentation of noxious stimuli and the taking away of valued stimuli. Strain Theory falls short of attempting to explain the origin of the expectations and discrepant opportunities. The theory merely asserts a goals-means disjuncture as an integral feature of â€Å"industrial society†. This silence points, once again, to the need for a more precise conceptualization of the overall structural context that shapes expectations, structures of opportunity, and the correspondence between them. Control theories - Another approach is made by the social bond or social control theory. Instead of looking for factors that make people become criminal, these theories try to explain why people do not become criminal. Travis Hirschi identified four main characteristics: attachment to others, belief in moral validity of rules, commitment to achievement and involvement in conventional activities†. The more a person features those characteristics, the less the chances are that he or she becomes deviant (or criminal). On the other hand, if those factors are not present in a person, it is more likely that he or she might become criminal. Hirschi expanded on this theory, with the idea that a person with low self control is moreShow MoreRelatedConflict Theory And Labeling Theory1480 Words   |  6 Pages Conflict theory and labeling theory are two similar theories in the world of crime. It has been debated whether or not there is a clear line separating the two theories. By evaluati ng the two theories, the differences between them can become more obvious and it becomes easier to separate the two. In addition to conflict theory and labeling theory, there is another type of theories that are used to explain crime. These theories focus more on a criminal s lifetime and how their criminal records haveRead MoreAnomie Theory1630 Words   |  7 PagesAnomie theory is important for explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, 2011). It describes a lack of social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). In detail, it is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Later on, Robert Merton, the President of American Sociological AssociationRead More Rational Choice Theory Essay1246 Words   |  5 PagesThere are three main points that are reinforced in rat ional choice theory (Cornish and Clarke, 1986). First, it may work better or worse for different types of crime, yet it is thought that there are rational choices in every type of crime even impulsive and pathologic crimes. Second, the theory should be applied on a crime-specific basis. Hence, burglaries can’t be grouped together in among residential and commercial categories. Rather, they must be broken into smaller facets such as publicRead MoreCrime Control in America Essay1598 Words   |  7 PagesThere has long been a debate over which, if any, are the most effective methods of crime control. Governments from bottom to top in our nation have poured over the issue with mixed results for as long as there has been a nation. Until very recently deterrence was completely based on fear of punishment. However, recent years have provided us with a more complete understanding of crime and its roots among the more desirable parts of our society, specifically the mind of a criminal. Through theRead MoreThe s Control Theory And Merton s Strain Theory Essay1516 Words   |  7 Pages3 RCMP officers. In the aftermath of this shocking crime, criminologists ask themselves two questions: why did this happen, and even more importantly, how can we prevent it from happening again? Hirschi’s Control Theory and Merton’s Strain Theory suggest that Bourque’s failure to properly bond with our society and his inability to succeed within it directly led to the most extreme form of social deviance: murder. Considered one of the worst crimes in Canadian history (The Canadian Press, 2014), onRead MoreThe Revolutionary Armed Forces Of Colombia1686 Words   |  7 Pagesaround the time when they had started kidnapping and extorting large and small businesses. In the 1980 s they began to increase their activities to include taxing cocaine laboratories. The FARC’s activities provided money to ensure the soldiers had better equipment and the money also gained them more soldiers. FARC is a documented responsibility in the largest drug trade entity throughout a 50 year insurgency. Literary estimates show that FARC was responsible for the trade of nearly $2 million perRead MoreTalcott Parsons And Structural Functionalism1428 Words   |  6 Pages Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structure that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms. This approach looks at both social structure and social institutions. A common analogy, popularized by Herbert SpencerRead More The Distinction Between Crime and Deviance Essay1274 Words   |  6 Pages Crime statistics exist entirely to measure levels of crime inside society; so, the purpose of this essay is to illustrate whether or not the statistical data on crime and deviance provides a true measurement of criminal occurrences in British society. The distinction between crime and deviance is going to be explored and a clear understanding of how they differentiate from each other will be gained. The terms Formal and Informal social control will be identified and their differences determinedRead MoreUsing Data Storage And Cleansing1027 Words   |  5 Pagesthe techniques of knowledge discovery and modelling are applied vigorously. Pre-processing and cleansing: Data is made reliable during this stage. Include mechanisms such as removing outliers, handling missing values. Data Transformation: Generating better data for which the data mining is prepared and developed. Dimension reduction, extraction, selection, record sampling and so forth are used. Data mining: Choosing appropriate data mining algorithm is the main task in this step. After getting decidedRead MoreIs Viadimir Vladimirovich Putin a Dictator? Essay701 Words   |  3 Pages‘power vertical’ rather has somehow reincarnated under the rule of Putin. From David Miliband calling Vladimir Putin a ‘ruthless dictator’ to Masha Gessen’s ‘The Dictator’ in the New York Times, I asked myself why they have chosen such vocabulary to describe the man. Is Putin really a dictator? The word ‘dictator’, originated from Latin, is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as ‘a ruler with total power over a country’. Nonetheless, is he really someone with ‘total power’ over the Mother Russia as reckoned

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The World War I And The Red Scare - 1552 Words

In the early 20th Century, the United States endured a time of political unrest. During World War I, fears of socialism and communism entered the psyche of the United States and culminated in the Red Scare. Hundreds of American citizens – particularly immigrants – suffered unprecedented arrests and deportations (Fariello 4). During this time, Charles Schenck, secretary of the Socialist Party of America, actively opposed the war. Due to Schenck’s efforts, the organization distributed thousands of leaflets criticizing conscription and encouraging readers to assert rights against the draft and intimidation (Schenck v. United States 1). In the 1919 case Schenck v. United States, the defendants were charged with violating the Espionage Act of 1917 by causing and attempting to cause insubordination in U.S. military forces by distributing a document denouncing the draft in name of the 13th amendment (Schenck 1). When insurgency and fear continued, Congress amended the E spionage Act with the Sedition Act, which limited many more forms of speech (Fariello 14). At this point, society had to decide whether these limits on speech aligned with its interests. Holmes similarly had to consider whether to forfeit his belief that ideals in the Constitution and its Amendments exist absolutely (Cohen 27). In the end, he decided that a balance between absolute ideals and the responsibilities of Congress must prevail as the most fair compromise – or standard. In this fairness, the Court affordsShow MoreRelatedRed Scare After World War I and the Bolshevik Russian Revolution, Communists, people who supports1200 Words   |  5 PagesRed Scare After World War I and the Bolshevik Russian Revolution, Communists, people who supports or believes in the principles of communism, which is a political theory derived from Karl Marx, supporting class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person is paid according to their abilities and needs, overpowered Russia in 1917. The Americans feared the Communist ideas. The fear increased when millions of American workers went on strike in 1919. The Red ScareRead MoreThe Red Scare By Shianne Campbell1189 Words   |  5 PagesRed Scare Essay By shianne Campbell My position is the Red Scare. First of all, the reason why I picked this topic was because the Red Scare was an effect from the Cold War. In other words, this was a political, social, and economic matter involving the communist party, USA government, teachers, and leaders. As follows, this issue was taken place in the USA in the late 1940’s through the early 1950’s.(1947-1957) Therefore, this conflict was many leaders, professors, other teachers, and many otherRead MoreEssay on The First Red Scare1651 Words   |  7 PagesAs World War I was heading towards its end Russia was focusing on internal issues. Led by Vladimir Lenin the Bolsheviks embarked on a campaign against the war. Using propaganda which focused on trying to turn the allied troops against their officers Lenin looked to inspire a socialist revolution. The Bolsheviks were also fueled by the poor conditions of the Russian Army. Nicholas II, in a letter to his wife Alexandra, admitted the obstacles that th e Russian Army faced, Again that cursed questionRead MoreThe Cold War1100 Words   |  5 PagesThe Cold War had an impact regarding Americans socially and culturally. What was the Cold War? The Cold War was a small war between the US and the Soviet Union. It ended up to be that the Soviet Union ended after this.What specifically in social and cultural life did it impact? It impacted how people bonded and they got closer with different cultures, such as African Americans. Some of history’s most famous speeches given during this time include John F. Kennedy’s â€Å"A strategy to Peace† and DwightRead MoreWorld War I and the Home Front Essay1055 Words   |  5 PagesAmerica’s involvement in World War I not only impacted the war front but also the people left on the home front. When America entered World War I in 1917 the government enforced many measures on its citizens, many of which violated constitutional rights. The biggest measure inflicted on the American population was censorship. The formation of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) and the passing of the Espionage Act and Sedition Amendment stole American’s freedom of speech, created an anti-GermanRead MoreRed Scare, KKK, Civil War Brought Fear to America1717 Words   |  7 Pagesdrove America. The Red Scare was a time when Americans were afraid of the threat of Communism. In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, two Italian anarchists were convicted of crim es which they were clearly innocent of. The Ku Klux Klan attempted to keep African-Americans out of positions of power and for brief time was successful. The Red Scare, Sacco Vanzetti case and the rise of the KKK all are example of how American’s fear the unknown and what we don’t understand. After Red Scare is the term the fearRead MoreAp Us History 2001 Dbq Essay1081 Words   |  5 PagesHow successfully did Eisenhower’s administration address Cold War fears after WWII from 1948 to 1961? Eisenhower’s administration was to a somewhat large extent successful in addressing Cold War fears after World War II through attempts at promoting capitalism and preventing the spread of Communism. I. General American Fears after WWII. A. Spread of Communism fear of U.S. becoming Communist. B. China Communist fear. C. McCarthyism heightened fear. D. Hesitation of action to prevent WWIIIRead MoreMccarthyism And The Salem Witch Trials1360 Words   |  6 Pagesof treason without evidence, and take advantage of some extreme fear in order to send people they don’t like to jail or to death. Though wrong, it was used many times throughout history. I intend to explain how McCarthyism is comparable to what happened in the Salem Witch Trials, how it was used in The Red Scare, and the effects of it on the people accused. McCarthyism is very similar to what happened during the Salem Witch Trials. The Witch Trials were during a time in early American history whenRead MoreEssay on Social Changes and Unrest in American During World War I906 Words   |  4 Pages2013 World War I left the citizens of the United States on edge and fearing for their lives and their families lives from the â€Å"Reds.† The â€Å"Reds† were the army that Vladimir Lenin led against the Russian Monarchy to introduce communism in Russia. Many Americans feared that Lenin’s followers, the Bolsheviks, would come and do the same in America. They were afraid America would be taken over. By immigrants, anarchists, and communists. This post World War I time period became known as the Red ScareRead MoreTheme Of Mass Hysteria In The Crucible1032 Words   |  5 PagesSuch demonstrations of this phenomenon can be found in The Crucible as well as many epidemics recorded as far back as the Middle-Ages. For example, the Bin Laden itch and the Red Scare were the result of an unknown cause and amplified by misunderstood facts. As evidenced in The Crucible, the Bin Laden itch, and the Red Scare, fear can override a person’s ability to seek the truth. This la ck of rationalization can lead to seemingly contagious mass chaos. Mass hysteria outbreaks have significantly impacted

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Callaway Golf Company Free Essays

Callaway Golf Company (CGC) Harvard Business School Case Study Ely Callaway had a vision, â€Å"If we make a truly more satisfying product for the average golfer, not the professionals, and make it pleasingly different from the competition, the company would be successful† (Lal Prescott, 2011, p. 1). Key factors that led to Callaway’s success included his vision, his understanding of consumer behavior, his product variety, and his ability to build a premium brand. We will write a custom essay sample on Callaway Golf Company or any similar topic only for you Order Now Furthermore, the company’s relationship with its retail partners, the company’s new product development, and the company’s marketing strategy were key contributors to Callaway Golf Company’s success between 1988 and 1997. Callaway understood the competitive nature of the game and the competitive nature of the consumers. Golfers were consumers driven by social factors such as reference groups. According to Kotler and Keller (2009), â€Å"Reference groups consist of all groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on a person’s attitude or behavior† (p. 8). Reference groups expose people to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence attitudes and self-concepts, and create pressures for conformity that affect product and brand choices. Because Callaway understood the behaviors of his target market, he was able to strategically introduce new products that offered more satisfaction than the former products. With product modification , managers try to stimulate sales by improving quality, features, and style (p. 185). Callaway understood each product’s life cycle and introduced new products every two years. He discovered that after two years, the sales and prices typically declined (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 4), causing him to continually make his own products obsolete. However, this business process solidified the consumer’s expectation that Callaway Golf Company would always deliver a high quality product, a value-delivery system successfully established by the company. The Callaway brand was strong, therefore, giving the company marketing advantages such as improved perceptions of product performance, greater loyalty, less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions and marketing crises, larger margins, greater trade cooperation and additional brand extensions (Kotler and Keller, 2009, p. 131). There was consistent brand reinforcement with every product as Callaway’s marketing methods always conveyed what the brand represented, what core benefits it supplied, and what needs it satisfied. Additionally, Callaway conveyed how the brand made superior products that were strong, favorable, and unique. Various consumer spending and golfing behaviors left Callaway no choice but to change his marketing strategies. Callaway realized they could not depend on their 1982 original marketing strategy. Callaway believed there was no brand loyalty when it came to golfers. The bottom line was that golfers tend to purchase golf clubs they think will improve their game and will often blame the golf equipment for their lack of skill (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 4). Callaway knew their products had to be unique. Callaway also knew as the popularity of the game increased, golf equipment had to also increase in purpose and design. In 1998, Callaway experienced a decline in profits. The company lost $27 million because sales dropped 17%. Consequently, Ely Callaway realized he would have to change the way his company had been doing business. He refocused Calloway Golf Company’s â€Å". . . retail channels, new-product development, and marketing strategies† (p. 1). One force that drove Callaway to continuously change his strategy was the life span of the golf equipment. Callaway was quick at determining whether a product was a money maker or not. He measured the profit growth of a product within the first two years the product was launched. If sales decreased within the first two years, the product design was redesigned and â€Å"improved. † This could possibly lead to excessive inventories of one product and shortage of another. Through evaluation and control methods, Callaway was able to make the best product marketing decisions for the bottom line. Annual plan controls helped determine if the new product results were being achieved. Profitability controls determined if the new product was making or losing money. Efficiency controls balanced the spending and marketing expenditures. Strategic controls confirmed whether the company was targeting the best opportunities with the retailers, media, and advertising (Kotler-Keller, 2009, p. 331-333). Richard Helmstetter, vice president and chief of new products, joined Callaway Hickory Stick, Inc. in 1986. He transformed CGC â€Å". . . from a niche producer to an innovation powerhouse. . . † (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 2). Helmstetter viewed research and development differently than others in the industry. He challenged the scientists, engineers, and golfers he had hired to answer questions like â€Å"Where does backspin come from? † and â€Å"Why does a shot on the club toe hook left instead of right? † (p. 2). Helmstetter was correct in believing that by answering these types of questions the company would create better clubs. New product innovations included the development of the S2H2 (short, straight, hollow, hosel) model which redistributed the weight of the hosel. This allowed the weight to be better utilized elsewhere in the club. Following the S2H2 model was the development of the Big Bertha. It was a club with a bigger club head. The larger head allowed for fewer mishit shots and a better drive. This allowed the average player to have a better experience when playing, which led to loyalty to Callaway, despite the cost. Callaway found it challenging being caught in the middle of a changing marketing communication environment. Callaway had to take a deep look at the company’s marketing communication mix and decide if it was still effective. The marketing communication mix includes: advertising, sales promotion, events and experiences, public relations and publicity, direct marketing, interactive marketing, word-of-mouth marketing, and personal selling (Kotler-Keller, 2009, pp. 275-276). Callaway Golf Company did very little advertising. Callaway felt that word of mouth was the best way to promote his clubs Word of mouth marketing was what golfers used excessively. Whether a golfer wanted the latest, greatest style of club or testified to the improvement of a stroke due to the club, word of mouth marketing was huge amongst golfers because of the amount of time golfers spent with each other during a round of golf. Callaway knew that most non-professional golfers played in foursomes and would give live demonstrations each time they played. Furthermore, he built a premium product and recruited professional golfers who were the leaders in the sport to promote his products. These endorsements validated the products quality and superior technology. The professional golfers â€Å"not under contractual obligations† used Callaway products because of the performance enhancement the clubs provided. Eli Callaway knew his company had enjoyed many years of positive growth and he knows that many more years of positive growth lay ahead. Additionally, he knew that he would always be faced with decisions concerning what products to develop, what accounts need to be closed, what retail relationships should be developed, and what marketing strategy should be employed. â€Å"When asked if CGC could stay ahead of the competition, he said, citing Newton’s first law of motion, ‘No problem. Bodies in motion tend to remain in motion. ’ He continued, ‘It’s a hell of a story, and it’s not over yet’† (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 14). References Kotler, P. Keller, K. L. (2009). Analyzing consumer markets: A framework for marketing management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Lal, R. Prescott, E. D. (2000). Calloway Golf Company. Pearson custom business resources. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Case Analysis of Callaway Golf Company, (2009, May 16,). Retrieved on April, 5, 2011 from http://www. docshare. com/†¦ /Case-analysis-of-Callaway-Golf-Company2 How to cite Callaway Golf Company, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Individual Analysis of Marks Spencers Operations. free essay sample

Note that all companies including MS can only apply any or all of the three generic strategies,that is, cost leadership, differentiation, and focus(Nonaka et al, 1997). Considering one of MS’s core products (clothing), it implements a focus strategy, concentrating on a narrow segment (a particular buyer group (executives), market segment (high-end), product feature (uniqueness) and further differentiate the segments as perfect and classic, autograph and per una. Kotler et al defined market segmentation as ways of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of needs, characteristics or behaviour who might require separate products or marketing mixes. It is a step that leads to successful business positioning as it helps the operation procedure of the company. Types of market segmentation are: Demographic Psychographic Geographic Behavioural Market segmentation allows MS to treat similar customers in similar ways, whilst distinguishing between otherwise customer groups. We will write a custom essay sample on Individual Analysis of Marks Spencers Operations. or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page MS uses demographic and psychographic segmentations to select its target markets for its products (focus strategy). MS targets its customers by age, income, social class, and occupation. MS targets the 30 plus age group with high income and executive occupation. MS also bases its market segmentation through value. Many products in MS’s clothing range have premium-priced, high quality segment , a mid-priced segment and a low-price segment. In such a market, fashion and quality differences can outweigh price variations. MS segmentation was geared towards creation of a Niche, claiming huge market shares as market leader and pioneering by innovation. They provided three successful range of Womenswears in the Autumn and springs of 2001. The performances objectives of MS acquires quality, speed, dependability, flexibility, cost, uniqueness, and perfections in all their ranges. The operations management understood the order winners and qualifiers as they listened to customers’ comments. MS Clothings’ Ranges and Their Market Segments. Per una per una  is a range of female clothing sold at MS stores, launched   as a joint venture between MS and George Davies. The brand name means  for one  (woman) in Italian. It has been a major success for the company,  and in October 2004, Marks Spencer bought the brand in a ? 125 million, two-year service contract with George Davies. This range is a demographic and psychographic segmentations, focusing on ; -gender (female) -age (25-35years) personalty (fashion-conscious) -Income (high earner) Logo of per una Demographic segement of per una serves women of 25-35ages, who attach much interest to fashion. This also complimented the psychographic segments as women who earn high to create personalty. Autograph. Autograph range of clothings is synonymous to â€Å" hands of the real persons†, the use of original design from the known names of world reckoned designers within the Industry. MS employed these best hands to help present products for their Psychographic segmented customers. Although it was supplied to few shops, it however catered for social, lifestyle and personality variables in this segment. The social aspect of this segment was also pronounced during the lunching of Philip Treacy’s hat collection in March, 2001 for women and men of various lifestyle (achievers, strivers and strugglers). Perfect and Classic Collections This range of clothings from MS is providing flexibility of time and style to their customers. The demographic and psychographic segmentations of perfect and classics can be highlighted as: -gender (both sexes); -lifestyle (achiever,strivers or strugglers); -family life cycle; -personality (matured as in classic). In the demographic segment, MS focused on both male and female and any form of family cycle, that is, single or married. Maturity creates a perfect intrusion for the psychographic segment of this range of MS range. Order Winners and Qualifiers The order winners and qualifiers provide background for distinguishing between the different competitive factors that operations may choose to emphasize. The basis of the classification is that different competitive factors can play different roles in determining the competitive contribution of the operations function. Hill said order? winning competitive factors are held to be those on which better performance will result in more business, or an increased chance of gaining more business. Improving or increasing winners level often leads to more orders. Qualifying competitive factors or qualifiers are those for which performance has to be above a particular level in order for the product or service offered to be considered by the customer, otherwise do not appreciably affect the customers buying decision(Hayes et al, 2005). Hence there is less to appreciate in terms of profit if increased more than the qualifiers level. There is need to redirect competitve priorities and creating perfect strategic fit in order to attain order qualifiers from order winner. A useful way to examine a firms ability to be succesful in the market is to identify the order winners. An order winner is a criterion that customers use to differentiate the services or products of one firm from those of another. Order Winners and Qualifiers of Per una. Per una range will increase its customers when the operations management maintains and improves its exclusive designs and inclusion of large sizes within the range. Order Winners and Qualifiers of Autograph Cost of this range can attain lowest state to increase customer base numbers. Operation management hence needed to produce in larger volume to for good cost of productions and profits. Order Winners and Qualifiers of perfect and classic collections This range of collections increase in quality and introduction of other larger sizes stands a chance of providing the order winners. Diversification of the range may be a order qualifier. Performance Objectives The need for a well-defined set of objectives for specific task in any organization must rely wholly on operation management. (Flaherty, 1996). The competitive factors of several companies can be identified with their operation performance objectives. Marks and Spencer go a long way in adding uniqueness to clothings. This provide branding for the ranges of clothings as observed in the five basic performance objectives. Per una Performance Objectives In dealing with all customers of MS, the operations have adapted to provide far enough flexibility in the availability of the range to the satisfactions of the focussed segment. In providing the best of the erformance of this range, the operation management employed outsourcing companies and suppliers to provide awesome quality acceptable from Europe to Asia at the possible economies of scales. Autograph Performance Objectives Operaton management uses their basic quality coupled with uniqueness in this range of clothings. In the cost of production, the management moved to Portugal from UK to achieve lower economies of sclaes. The management noticed that dependability and flexibility are paramount, therefore, engaged several designers to have varieties in their best forms. MS suppy chain was re-designed to reduce the cumbersomeness and lengthy supplies of finished and un-finished materials. This provided customers with timely availabilities of this range in their scattered shops within designers boutique environment.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Tarjeta SENTRI para cruzar rápido entre México y EE.UU.

Tarjeta SENTRI para cruzar rpido entre Mà ©xico y EE.UU. SENTRI es una tarjeta de  inteligente con identificacià ³n por radio frecuencia que permite un cruce acelerado de la frontera terrestre  entre Estados Unidos y Mà ©xico. Es uno de los programas que se conocen con el nombre de Viajeros Confiables y Frecuentes que facilitan los pasos de control migratorio. SENTRI no debe confundirse con un programa muy similar conocido como  Nexus, una tarjeta de cruce rpido entre USA y Canad. En este artà ­culo se informa de quià ©nes pueden solicitar SENTRI, cules son los beneficios, cà ³mo se aplica por esa tarjeta, ycules son las causas comunes por las que la solicitud es negada. Quià ©nes pueden solicitar la tarjeta SENTRI Pueden aplicar por SENTRI las personas que se encuentran en cualquiera de las siguientes categorà ­as: Los ciudadanos americanosLos residentes permanentes legales, es decir, que tienen una green card.Cualquier extranjero  con visa vigente para ingresar o permanecer temporalmente en EE.UU.Los mexicanos que cruzan con frecuencia la frontera terrestre con Estados Unidos. Es muy importante tener en cuenta que SENTRI no es una visa. Recalcar que en el caso de personas no ciudadanas estadounidenses ni residentes permanentes legales es imprescindible tener una visa vigente antes de aplicar por SENTRI. Puede ser cualquier visa de todas las no inmigrantes posibles, como la lser -tambià ©n conocida como de Cruce, o la F-3 para estudiantes en la zona fronteriza.   Por à ºltimo, tambià ©n pueden solicitar la tarjeta SENTRI los nià ±os pero todos los peticionarios menores de edad debern tener el consentimiento de sus padres o guardianes legales. Si se viaja con nià ±os, cada nià ±o debe tener su propia tarjeta para beneficiarse de este programa. En otras palabras, no estn amparados por la de sus padres. Beneficios de obtener la tarjeta SENTRI El ms evidente es que se puede utilizar para ingresar a Estados Unidos desde Mà ©xico la fila SENTRI, donde el proceso de inspeccià ³n migratorio y aduanero dura, de media, 10 segundos. Estos son los pasos aduaneros donde se puede utilizar (verificar en  tiempo real los tiempos de demora en cruce de puentes internacionales): Nogales, ArizonaDouglas, ArizonaSan Luis, ArizonaOtay Mesa, CaliforniaSan Ysidro, CaliforniaCalexico, CaliforniaEl Paso, TexasHidalgo, TexasBrownsville, TexasLaredo, TexasAnzalduas, Texas Adems, SENTRI brinda otros beneficios. Por ejemplo, los titulares de estas tarjetas pueden en muchos casos utilizar  los kioskos de Global Entry  en los aeropuertos para acelerar el trnsito por aduanas. Existe en este punto una excepcià ³n importante que es que los ciudadano  mexicanos no pueden utilizar  esos kioskos con SENTRI. Si desean tener esa ventaja deben aplicar especà ­ficamente por Global Entry. Los  ciudadanos americanos  y sà ³lo ellos pueden ingresar por tierra o por mar a Estados Unidos procedentes de Mà ©xico sin pasaporte, utilizando la tarjeta SENTRI. Por el contrario, si se ingresa por avià ³n es necesario el pasaporte. En los viajes domà ©sticos por avià ³n, los titulares de estas tarjetas pueden enrolarse en el programa Pre-Check para agilizar el paso por el control de seguridad en aeropuertos. Cà ³mo se aplica por la tarjeta inteligente conocida como SENTRI Se solicita por internet en la pgina oficial de la Agencia de Aduanas y Proteccià ³n Fronteriza (CBP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s). En este momento se paga una cuota inicial de $25 por persona (en el caso de familias el coste mximo es de $50 por el padre y la madre y los hijos). Al poco tiempo se recibir una notificacià ³n llamada aprobacià ³n condicional. A partir de ese momento se tiene 30 dà ­as para cerrar una cita para la entrevista con la CBP utilizando el mismo sistema de internet. El dà ­a de la entrevista se tomar las huellas digitales del aplicante y una foto. Adems se tendr que pagar parte de la cuota. Adems, deber presentar los documentados originales que: Acrediten que es ciudadano americano, que es residente permanente o que tiene visa americana vigente.Licencia de manejar emitida por el estado en el que se vive (o un I.D. estatal)Registracià ³n del auto y prueba de seguro. Si el auto que se registra no es propiedad del solicitante de la tarjeta SENTRI entonces se precisa una carta notarizada del propietario en favor del solicitante. Si se trata de un auto de empresa, la carta debe estar escrita en un papel con el nombre de la compaà ±Ãƒ ­a.Prueba de solvencia econà ³mica, como tax returns recientes, nà ³minas, extractos de banco, licencia de negocio, si se tiene, etc.Evidencia de residencia, como por ejemplo, recibo del pago de la renta o de la hipoteca o escritura de propiedad de vivienda. Adems, llevar una copia de la aprobacià ³n condicional. El costo total de la tarjeta es de $122.25 por persona. Si se desea registrar ms de un auto, hay que pagar cuota adicional de $42. Si se solicita para toda la familia, es ms conveniente realizar la aplicacià ³n para todos de una sola vez. Causas de negacià ³n de la solicitud de una tarjeta SENTRI Las causas pueden ser muy variadas, por ejemplo, mentir en la aplicacià ³n, haber sido condenado por una ofensa criminal o tener una orden de arresto pendiente. Tambià ©n es causa de rechazo estar siendo investigado por alguna autoridad local, estatal o federal o, incluso, haber cometido en el pasado alguna infraccià ³n migratoria o de aduanas, incluidos casos en los que se intentà ³ ingresar al paà ­s un producto agrà ­cola o comida que est prohibido. Finalmente, se negar la tarjeta siempre que a juicio de las autoridades la persona solicitante puede suponer un riesgo de cualquier clase para los Estados Unidos. A tener en cuenta para conservar la validez de SENTRI Si se obtiene la tarjeta, debe tenerse presente lo siguiente: Es vlida por cinco aà ±os.Se debe notificar cambios de domicilio, cambios en la documentacià ³n, como obtencià ³n de nuevo pasaporte, licencia de manejar, green card.... o cambio de nombre. Tambià ©n se debe reportar cualquier condena excepto violaciones de trnsito. Para hacer estas notificaciones llamar a uno de los Centros para Enrolar.  Para poder utilizar una là ­nea SENTRI en la frontera es necesario que todos los ocupantes del auto sean titulares de su propia tarjeta. Esto incluye a nià ±os, incluso recià ©n nacidos. Quà © se puede ingresar a Estados Unidos desde Mà ©xico A la hora de ingresar a los Estados Unidos es conveniente conocer quà © artà ­culos est prohibido traer asà ­ cà ³mo cules estn permitidos en determinadas cantidades o previa declaracià ³n de ingreso. Finalmente, si se tiene la intencià ³n de ingresar a una mascota, tambià ©n se aconseja conocer las reglas para evitar problemas serios al llegar al control aduanero. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Weka programme Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Weka programme - Essay Example It is a free software issues under GNU General Public License. Weka stands for Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. It is the software which allows businesses to extract useful information out of large databases. This is the process of data mining which is a field that analyzes large sets of data and discovers patterns and methods for the management, processing, and inference considerations of the data. Weka software offers businesses a collection of learning tools and schemes that may be used for data mining (Witten, 2011, p. 132). There are four applications in the program which are accessible; these are Explorer, Experimenter, KnowledgeFlow, and Simple CLI. The first section of the software is to open the database or the dataset and make the edits as the user wishes. These edits include the filtering of data contents, changing of attributes, and visualizing the result in a bar chart. The available data can also be classified according to the set of rules which are predefined and can perform a complete analysis of cost-benefit that would display automatically the threshold curve and the cost matrix (Witten, 2011, p. 132). Moreover, the program also has many tools for the data clustering, attributes evaluator, and association rules. In addition, businesses also use it for the data plotting allowing the user to view and analyze the point graphs individually for each possible attribute combination. Businesses also use the weka programme as it is suitable for the development of new machine learning schemes. The user simply has to configure the experiment by choosing the type: classification or regression. Then the desired data set and algorithm has to be chosen and then it is ready to be run. The results of this procedure can be saved in CSV format or ARFF or as JDBC database. A data file can also be analyzed or tested through the program as it allows the user to choose the comparison field and the sorting criteria on