Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Chronological registry - Essay Example I worship this season. In any case past that, this is moreover an OK an ideal opportunity to research The Old Farmers Almanac 2015 atmosphere figures, and see what Mother Nature may have coming up for us. For the winter atmosphere figures in 2014-2015, The Old Farmers Almanac centers to Solar Cycle 24 Ã¢â¬ which began in 2008 Ã¢â¬ and predicts temperatures in the next year to be colder than standard in the midst of winter, and more sultry than run of the mill in the midst of summer. This winter, the central and eastern United States will see colder than conventional temperatures, while the western 33% of the country will experience better than average temps. Concerning day off, central bit of the country beginning from the dakotas to Texas and a short time later east through Georgia and South Carolina can anticipate frosty and dry, while the Corn Belt district will experience the cool with heavier snowfall. With everything taken into account, The Old Farmers Almanac predicts overpowering snowfall for the upper east bit of the country, but there are furthermore parts of New England Ã¢â¬ western Massachusetts, southern Vermont, New Hampshire and most of Maine Ã¢â¬ that will be dryer than customary. Florida will likely get more precipitation than run of the mill this winter. Out west, individuals can anticipate delicate temperatures and underneath ordinary snowfall practically, notwithstanding the way that the western bit of New Mexico down into the western-most pieces of Texas could see frosty, bone chilling conditions. Expect better than average temperatures or increasingly typical precipitation in by far most of Washington State. In the midst of summer, we could be in for a sweltering, dry one here in the midst of the country. Anticipate hot all through the country, the principle two exceptional cases being in the southwest and in the mid-Atlantic states, where in the two zones they are foreseeing standard temperatures. Looking at the guide of The Old Farmers Almanac atmosphere figures for summer 2015, it is hard not to
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The Great Gatsby Destruction of the American Dream Essay The disappointment of the American dream can be seen through the primary characters Gatsby, Daisy and Myrtle and Tom Buchannan. Gatsby is clearly the most significant of the four, because of his huge move in the book. Jay Gatsby is set on getting his affection intrigue, Daisy, his better half before the war. Amusingly, Gatsby, an enriched military official, is so purpose on getting Daisy back he includes himself in composed wrongdoing and bootlegging (Callahan 2). He moves in over the waterway from Daisy and tosses sumptuous gatherings to attempt to get her to come and attempt to charm her back to him. These extravagant gatherings and GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to proceed onward will at last lead to his destruction. Baska 2 GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s character matches with numerous things raised in the book. Fitzgerald utilizes Nick to depict Gatsby house, Ã¢â¬Å"The one on my privilege was an enormous issue by any standardÃ¢â¬it was an accurate impersonation of some Hotel de Ville in Normandy, with a pinnacle on one side, punishing new under a dainty whiskers of crude ivy, and a marble pool, and in excess of forty sections of land of grass and nursery. It was GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s mansionÃ¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 7). At the point when Nick goes into GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s house to go to one of his gatherings he likewise portrays its amazing rooms with high void roofs. Gatsby, much like his house, puts of this exquisite appearance yet within he is empty and tiring to discover individuals to fill that void DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s character is exceptionally static simply like the Gatsby; she plays Gatsby off and just really enjoyed him since he was simply something new (Callahan 2). In spite of being from the upper exclusive class and having the Ã¢â¬Å"perfect lifestyleÃ¢â¬ , she despite everything is the unnecessary extra person wheel in her relationship. Tom, DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s spouse, takes part in an undertaking with Myrtle and regardless of the reasoning that the high society is great and everybody ought to resemble them Tom beats his better half and is hot headed. Tom is additionally a manufacturing plant proprietor and the New York production lines have decimated this valley known as the Valley of Ashes. In this Valley there is the indication of Dr. T. J. Eckleburg Ã¢â¬Å"The eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg are blue and giganticÃ¢â¬their irises are one Baska 3 yard high. They watch out of no face, at the same time, rather, from a couple of huge yellow scenes which disregard a nonexistent nose. Clearly some wild sway of an oculist set them there to stuff his training in the ward of Queens, and afterward sank down himself into everlasting visual impairment. Ã¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 24) The rotting face of Eckleburg is there to show the outcomes of the American Dream in the twenties and how it had devastated the lives of numerous individuals. It might likewise be viewed as the demise of God these days of social rot. Much like Daisy in her childhood Myrtle has chosen the rich life is the path for her. Myrtle up till the end is a practically perfect image of the American Dream regardless of undermining her better half for Tom. MyrtleÃ¢â¬â¢s vehicle has stalled and when she leaves the vehicle Daisy, who was descending the street, hits her with her vehicle. Myrtle had gone from the Valley of Ashes to the wealth to being killed by her affection affairÃ¢â¬â¢s spouse. This descending winding proceeds with when George Wilson, Myrtles spouse, accepts who at any point hit Myrtle was the individual she was having an unsanctioned romance with. Tom reveals to Wilson that Gatsby was driving the vehicle that hit Myrtle. Wilson goes to GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s house were he discovers him unwinding in the pool on a buoy. Wilson fires Gatsby then turns the firearm on himself, demonstrating us the lamentable completion of the books defilement in the American Dream topic. Debasement in the twenties showed in The Great Gatsby matches with numerous different ages, one such one is the latest. The present reality is loaded up with industrialism and the possibility that to be reat and to be the individual in the spot light you Baska 4 must have cash and excitement. In The Great Gatsby, there is likewise the obvious battle between the Ã¢â¬Å"new moneyÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"old moneyÃ¢â¬ similarly as there is today. The Roaring twenties was the original to change the American Dream from the rigid puritan ethics to living enormous in the manor. Hollywood, superstars and the TV has imbedded the disappointments of the American Dream which Fitzger ald has uncovered in The Great Gatsby into todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. The working class has been given the benefit to have a home and have opportunity, so the perspective on the American dream has been changed by society. Tyler Durden, from Fight Club, communicates the estimations above Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising makes them pursue vehicles and garments, maintaining sources of income we despise so we can purchase stuff we donÃ¢â¬â¢t needÃ¢â¬ (Palahniuk 114). In spite of all the oblivious bias the ongoing enormous scope Hispanic migration ideally will show America that The American Dream ought not tied in with having cash and the ideal life, however having a place of refuge to carry on with your life free. The individuals who left everything to come to America not to be renowned or the well off yet for a superior life for them and their kids are the genuine glorification of the American Dream. From the Great Gatsby to the thundering twenties all they far up to present day times individuals admire the American Dream for motivation and attempt to make it their own. Voracity and love may have ruined the fantasy for Gatsby, however it is simply human instinct to need more than what you have and that is the genuine defilement Fitzgerald has demonstrated his perusers.
Sunday, August 9, 2020
As if course numbers werenât enough Learning your A, B, Cs, and OEs It has been far too long since my last entry, and I have an excuse for every day that I have neglected my blog. The short story is that I have been traveling around for MD-PhD program interviews, which is one of the final steps in the long journey that is the medical school admissions process. Iâve had the opportunity to visit Baltimore, New Haven, New York, and San Francisco/ Palo Alto, and meet countless doctors, scientists, and MD-PhD students. (Pictures from San Francisco will be included in a future entry.) Iâm ashamed to say that I had received an email from Paul â11 many weeks ago that asked about my choice of major (a sub specialty of Mechanical Engineering called Course â2Aâ) and Iâve only now been able to respond. Better late than never, no? Background Info: As you may know, asking an MIT student what theyâre majoring in may result in a numerical response (or even a string of numbers.) For example, Laura might say â2â, meaning Mechanical Engineering Evan might respond with â6â, meaning Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Anthony would say â11â, Urban Studies and Planning I know someone that would respond âMajoring in 5 and 7, with minors in 9 and 14â. Translation: âIâm crazy.â Well, more accurately, it means that this person is double majoring in Chemistry and Biology, with minors in Brain and Cognitive Science and Economics. The (imaginary) MITese â" English dictionary has entries for Courses 1-24 (with the exception of Course 19 (which was called Metallurgy from 1937-1940, Meteorology from 1946-1981, and Meteorology Physical Oceanography from 1981-1983) and Course 23 (which used to be Modern Languages, then Foreign Literature Linguistics.)) A history of the evolution of course numbers can be found here. Itâs actually pretty fun to look at. Anywayâ¦ as if the fact that the majors, buildings, AND classes are all numbered (e.g. âI have 5.111 at 12:00 in 10-250â) wasnât enough, several of the majors have letters or numbers tacked onto them as well. For example: -The flavors of Course 1 are 1-A (Design your own Civil and Environmental Engineering degree), 1-C (Civil Engineering), and 1-E (Environmental Engineering) -The flavors of Course 2 are 2 (Mechanical Engineering), 2-A (Design your own Mechanical Engineering curriculum), or 2-OE (Mechanical and Ocean Engineering.) -The flavors of Course 6 are 6-1 (Electrical Engineering), 6-2 (Electrical Engineering and Computer Science), or 6-3 (Computer Science and Engineering.) -The flavors of Course 10 are 10 (Chemical Engineering), 10-B (Chemical-Biological Engineering), and 10-C (Design your own Chemical Engineering curriculum). As an applicant, you are by no means expected to understand this alphabet soup. Once you get here, though, youâre forced to dip your spoon in and search for the right letter (or combination of letters) that suits your interest. This can be a rather difficult task that my fellow bloggers have covered extensively. Iâve compiled some of the links at the bottom of this entry, and rest assured that almost everyone ends up switching majors or minors at some point. Why I chose to be 2-A (Design your own Mechanical Engineering major with a concentration in Biomedical Engineering) with Pre-med: I came into MIT knowing that I liked two things: building stuff and the human body (and what can go wrong with it.) I learned how to use a power drill and table saw at the ripe age of 10, and I loved making robots. So, the decision to major in Mechanical Engineering was pretty easy. I thought that an undergraduate degree in MechE would provide me with a solid yet broad engineering background that I could apply to either medical or graduate school. My impression was that studying engineering taught you how to solve problems, and isnât that a prerequisite for most careers? I also thought that MechE would train me to think analytically about systems â" both how to design them and how to fix them when they âbreak.â Since the human body seemed to be a web of interconnected systems (circulatory, muscular, digestive, immune, etc.), I thought this training would make me a great doctor, as well. Next, I chose to design my own Mechanical Engineering major through the 2-A degree program instead of taking the traditional full Course 2 route. My reasoning was that the full Course 2 degree program has a pretty defined structure with many required classes. I wanted to learn about material properties, control systems, robotics, manufacturing, and thermodynamics, but I also wanted to have time to take my pre-med requirements (see my previous pre-med entry and explore other classes. To get the flexibility that I wanted (and needed), I enrolled in the 2-A program. This enabled me to take the 9-10 core Mechanical Engineering classes, while taking 6-7 classes in my self-defined concentration. Hereâs some info from the MechE website: âA significant part of the 2-A curriculum consists of electives chosen by the student to provide in-depth study of a field of the studentâs choosing. A wide variety of popular concentrations are possible in which well-selected academic subjects complement a foundation in mechanical engineering and general Institute requirements. Some examples of potential concentrations include biomedical engineering and pre-medicine; energy conversion engineering; engineering management; product development; robotics; technology policy and pre-law; sustainable design and engineering; and architecture and building technology. The ME faculty have developed specific recommendations in some of these areas; details are given on other pages in this web site.â (MechE site) My concentration is in Biomedical Engineering (BME), which has since become a minor. Several of the classes for my BME minor also fulfill my pre-med requirements. But now, the choices are more plentiful than ever. The Department of Biological Engineering (Course 20) has been developed recently, and it offers some really cool classes, some of which Iâve taken through my BME minor. If youâre thinking of being pre-med but want to get an engineering background too, then Course 20 is an awesome option. If you want to engineer proteins, learning about cell systems, and model processes of a cell, then consider Course 20. If you want to learn about forces, model mechanical systems, study fluids, and build robots and other cool stuff, then consider MechE. Chemical Engineering, or Course 10, is sort of at the intersection, and you should look at the course requirements and talk to professors if youâre incredibly confused. Youâll also be assigned to a faculty advisor who can talk you through the process. If youâve made it this far, you get a gold star. Now that I have a few months left at the Institute and Iâve gone through a significant number of med school interviews, Iâm really happy about my choice to be 2-A with BME. I think itâs prepared me really well to think critically, and Iâve had the opportunity to take cool classes outside of my major (like Computational Neuroscience, Analysis of Biomolecular Systems, Linguistics, and more.) (On a side note, so far, I havenât met another Mechanical Engineering applicant on the interview circuit.) Helpful advice from my fellow bloggers: Bryan on why he chose to be 2A: here Mollieâs thoughts on Biology (Course 7): here Jessieâs advice on Physics (Course 8): here Mollieâs info on Brain and Cognitive Science (Course 9): here More on Course 9: here Samâs advice on what Chemical Engineering (Course 10) is: here Mattâs info on Management Science (Course 15): here Mitraâs pre-med advice: here Lauraâs adventures in choosing a major:here Mollieâs advice on choosing a major:here
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Scholars have supported classical theory as the best descriptive model of crime. This paper makes a comparison to different theories of crime in comparison with the classical theory of crime with intent to arrive at a position in support or against the stance of these other scholars, that classical theory is the best descriptive model of crime. Classical Theory, which developed in the mid 18th century, was based on utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crimes and Punishments (1763Ã¢â¬â64), Jeremy Bentham, inventor of the panopticon, and other classical school philosophers argued that people have free will to choose how to act; that deterrence is based upon the notion of the human being as a hedonist who seeks pleasure andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Under certain conditions, they are likely to respond to this strain through crime. The strains leading to crime, however, may not be linked to goal blockage (or deprivation of valued stimuli) but also to the presentation of noxious stimuli and the taking away of valued stimuli. Strain Theory falls short of attempting to explain the origin of the expectations and discrepant opportunities. The theory merely asserts a goals-means disjuncture as an integral feature of Ã¢â¬Å"industrial societyÃ¢â¬ . This silence points, once again, to the need for a more precise conceptualization of the overall structural context that shapes expectations, structures of opportunity, and the correspondence between them. Control theories - Another approach is made by the social bond or social control theory. Instead of looking for factors that make people become criminal, these theories try to explain why people do not become criminal. Travis Hirschi identified four main characteristics: attachment to others, belief in moral validity of rules, commitment to achievement and involvement in conventional activitiesÃ¢â¬ . The more a person features those characteristics, the less the chances are that he or she becomes deviant (or criminal). On the other hand, if those factors are not present in a person, it is more likely that he or she might become criminal. Hirschi expanded on this theory, with the idea that a person with low self control is moreShow MoreRelatedConflict Theory And Labeling Theory1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Conflict theory and labeling theory are two similar theories in the world of crime. It has been debated whether or not there is a clear line separating the two theories. By evaluati ng the two theories, the differences between them can become more obvious and it becomes easier to separate the two. In addition to conflict theory and labeling theory, there is another type of theories that are used to explain crime. These theories focus more on a criminal s lifetime and how their criminal records haveRead MoreAnomie Theory1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnomie theory is important for explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, 2011). It describes a lack of social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). In detail, it is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Later on, Robert Merton, the President of American Sociological AssociationRead More Rational Choice Theory Essay1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere are three main points that are reinforced in rat ional choice theory (Cornish and Clarke, 1986). First, it may work better or worse for different types of crime, yet it is thought that there are rational choices in every type of crime even impulsive and pathologic crimes. Second, the theory should be applied on a crime-specific basis. Hence, burglaries canÃ¢â¬â¢t be grouped together in among residential and commercial categories. Rather, they must be broken into smaller facets such as publicRead MoreCrime Control in America Essay1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere has long been a debate over which, if any, are the most effective methods of crime control. Governments from bottom to top in our nation have poured over the issue with mixed results for as long as there has been a nation. Until very recently deterrence was completely based on fear of punishment. However, recent years have provided us with a more complete understanding of crime and its roots among the more desirable parts of our society, specifically the mind of a criminal. Through theRead MoreThe s Control Theory And Merton s Strain Theory Essay1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages3 RCMP officers. In the aftermath of this shocking crime, criminologists ask themselves two questions: why did this happen, and even more importantly, how can we prevent it from happening again? HirschiÃ¢â¬â¢s Control Theory and MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s Strain Theory suggest that BourqueÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to properly bond with our society and his inability to succeed within it directly led to the most extreme form of social deviance: murder. Considered one of the worst crimes in Canadian history (The Canadian Press, 2014), onRead MoreThe Revolutionary Armed Forces Of Colombia1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaround the time when they had started kidnapping and extorting large and small businesses. In the 1980 s they began to increase their activities to include taxing cocaine laboratories. The FARCÃ¢â¬â¢s activities provided money to ensure the soldiers had better equipment and the money also gained them more soldiers. FARC is a documented responsibility in the largest drug trade entity throughout a 50 year insurgency. Literary estimates show that FARC was responsible for the trade of nearly $2 million perRead MoreTalcott Parsons And Structural Functionalism1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structure that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms. This approach looks at both social structure and social institutions. A common analogy, popularized by Herbert SpencerRead More The Distinction Between Crime and Deviance Essay1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Crime statistics exist entirely to measure levels of crime inside society; so, the purpose of this essay is to illustrate whether or not the statistical data on crime and deviance provides a true measurement of criminal occurrences in British society. The distinction between crime and deviance is going to be explored and a clear understanding of how they differentiate from each other will be gained. The terms Formal and Informal social control will be identified and their differences determinedRead MoreUsing Data Storage And Cleansing1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe techniques of knowledge discovery and modelling are applied vigorously. Pre-processing and cleansing: Data is made reliable during this stage. Include mechanisms such as removing outliers, handling missing values. Data Transformation: Generating better data for which the data mining is prepared and developed. Dimension reduction, extraction, selection, record sampling and so forth are used. Data mining: Choosing appropriate data mining algorithm is the main task in this step. After getting decidedRead MoreIs Viadimir Vladimirovich Putin a Dictator? Essay701 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Ëpower verticalÃ¢â¬â¢ rather has somehow reincarnated under the rule of Putin. From David Miliband calling Vladimir Putin a Ã¢â¬Ëruthless dictatorÃ¢â¬â¢ to Masha GessenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe DictatorÃ¢â¬â¢ in the New York Times, I asked myself why they have chosen such vocabulary to describe the man. Is Putin really a dictator? The word Ã¢â¬ËdictatorÃ¢â¬â¢, originated from Latin, is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as Ã¢â¬Ëa ruler with total power over a countryÃ¢â¬â¢. Nonetheless, is he really someone with Ã¢â¬Ëtotal powerÃ¢â¬â¢ over the Mother Russia as reckoned
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
In the early 20th Century, the United States endured a time of political unrest. During World War I, fears of socialism and communism entered the psyche of the United States and culminated in the Red Scare. Hundreds of American citizens Ã¢â¬â particularly immigrants Ã¢â¬â suffered unprecedented arrests and deportations (Fariello 4). During this time, Charles Schenck, secretary of the Socialist Party of America, actively opposed the war. Due to SchenckÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts, the organization distributed thousands of leaflets criticizing conscription and encouraging readers to assert rights against the draft and intimidation (Schenck v. United States 1). In the 1919 case Schenck v. United States, the defendants were charged with violating the Espionage Act of 1917 by causing and attempting to cause insubordination in U.S. military forces by distributing a document denouncing the draft in name of the 13th amendment (Schenck 1). When insurgency and fear continued, Congress amended the E spionage Act with the Sedition Act, which limited many more forms of speech (Fariello 14). At this point, society had to decide whether these limits on speech aligned with its interests. Holmes similarly had to consider whether to forfeit his belief that ideals in the Constitution and its Amendments exist absolutely (Cohen 27). In the end, he decided that a balance between absolute ideals and the responsibilities of Congress must prevail as the most fair compromise Ã¢â¬â or standard. In this fairness, the Court affordsShow MoreRelatedRed Scare After World War I and the Bolshevik Russian Revolution, Communists, people who supports1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRed Scare After World War I and the Bolshevik Russian Revolution, Communists, people who supports or believes in the principles of communism, which is a political theory derived from Karl Marx, supporting class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person is paid according to their abilities and needs, overpowered Russia in 1917. The Americans feared the Communist ideas. The fear increased when millions of American workers went on strike in 1919. The Red ScareRead MoreThe Red Scare By Shianne Campbell1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRed Scare Essay By shianne Campbell My position is the Red Scare. First of all, the reason why I picked this topic was because the Red Scare was an effect from the Cold War. In other words, this was a political, social, and economic matter involving the communist party, USA government, teachers, and leaders. As follows, this issue was taken place in the USA in the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s through the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s.(1947-1957) Therefore, this conflict was many leaders, professors, other teachers, and many otherRead MoreEssay on The First Red Scare1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs World War I was heading towards its end Russia was focusing on internal issues. Led by Vladimir Lenin the Bolsheviks embarked on a campaign against the war. Using propaganda which focused on trying to turn the allied troops against their officers Lenin looked to inspire a socialist revolution. The Bolsheviks were also fueled by the poor conditions of the Russian Army. Nicholas II, in a letter to his wife Alexandra, admitted the obstacles that th e Russian Army faced, Again that cursed questionRead MoreThe Cold War1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Cold War had an impact regarding Americans socially and culturally. What was the Cold War? The Cold War was a small war between the US and the Soviet Union. It ended up to be that the Soviet Union ended after this.What specifically in social and cultural life did it impact? It impacted how people bonded and they got closer with different cultures, such as African Americans. Some of historyÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous speeches given during this time include John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A strategy to PeaceÃ¢â¬ and DwightRead MoreWorld War I and the Home Front Essay1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in World War I not only impacted the war front but also the people left on the home front. When America entered World War I in 1917 the government enforced many measures on its citizens, many of which violated constitutional rights. The biggest measure inflicted on the American population was censorship. The formation of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) and the passing of the Espionage Act and Sedition Amendment stole AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of speech, created an anti-GermanRead MoreRed Scare, KKK, Civil War Brought Fear to America1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdrove America. The Red Scare was a time when Americans were afraid of the threat of Communism. In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, two Italian anarchists were convicted of crim es which they were clearly innocent of. The Ku Klux Klan attempted to keep African-Americans out of positions of power and for brief time was successful. The Red Scare, Sacco Vanzetti case and the rise of the KKK all are example of how AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s fear the unknown and what we donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. After Red Scare is the term the fearRead MoreAp Us History 2001 Dbq Essay1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow successfully did EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s administration address Cold War fears after WWII from 1948 to 1961? EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s administration was to a somewhat large extent successful in addressing Cold War fears after World War II through attempts at promoting capitalism and preventing the spread of Communism. I. General American Fears after WWII. A. Spread of Communism fear of U.S. becoming Communist. B. China Communist fear. C. McCarthyism heightened fear. D. Hesitation of action to prevent WWIIIRead MoreMccarthyism And The Salem Witch Trials1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof treason without evidence, and take advantage of some extreme fear in order to send people they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like to jail or to death. Though wrong, it was used many times throughout history. I intend to explain how McCarthyism is comparable to what happened in the Salem Witch Trials, how it was used in The Red Scare, and the effects of it on the people accused. McCarthyism is very similar to what happened during the Salem Witch Trials. The Witch Trials were during a time in early American history whenRead MoreEssay on Social Changes and Unrest in American During World War I906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2013 World War I left the citizens of the United States on edge and fearing for their lives and their families lives from the Ã¢â¬Å"Reds.Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"RedsÃ¢â¬ were the army that Vladimir Lenin led against the Russian Monarchy to introduce communism in Russia. Many Americans feared that LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s followers, the Bolsheviks, would come and do the same in America. They were afraid America would be taken over. By immigrants, anarchists, and communists. This post World War I time period became known as the Red ScareRead MoreTheme Of Mass Hysteria In The Crucible1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSuch demonstrations of this phenomenon can be found in The Crucible as well as many epidemics recorded as far back as the Middle-Ages. For example, the Bin Laden itch and the Red Scare were the result of an unknown cause and amplified by misunderstood facts. As evidenced in The Crucible, the Bin Laden itch, and the Red Scare, fear can override a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to seek the truth. This la ck of rationalization can lead to seemingly contagious mass chaos. Mass hysteria outbreaks have significantly impacted
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Callaway Golf Company (CGC) Harvard Business School Case Study Ely Callaway had a vision, Ã¢â¬Å"If we make a truly more satisfying product for the average golfer, not the professionals, and make it pleasingly different from the competition, the company would be successfulÃ¢â¬ (Lal Prescott, 2011, p. 1). Key factors that led to CallawayÃ¢â¬â¢s success included his vision, his understanding of consumer behavior, his product variety, and his ability to build a premium brand. We will write a custom essay sample on Callaway Golf Company or any similar topic only for you Order Now Furthermore, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with its retail partners, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s new product development, and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy were key contributors to Callaway Golf CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s success between 1988 and 1997. Callaway understood the competitive nature of the game and the competitive nature of the consumers. Golfers were consumers driven by social factors such as reference groups. According to Kotler and Keller (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Reference groups consist of all groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude or behaviorÃ¢â¬ (p. 8). Reference groups expose people to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence attitudes and self-concepts, and create pressures for conformity that affect product and brand choices. Because Callaway understood the behaviors of his target market, he was able to strategically introduce new products that offered more satisfaction than the former products. With product modification , managers try to stimulate sales by improving quality, features, and style (p. 185). Callaway understood each productÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle and introduced new products every two years. He discovered that after two years, the sales and prices typically declined (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 4), causing him to continually make his own products obsolete. However, this business process solidified the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation that Callaway Golf Company would always deliver a high quality product, a value-delivery system successfully established by the company. The Callaway brand was strong, therefore, giving the company marketing advantages such as improved perceptions of product performance, greater loyalty, less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions and marketing crises, larger margins, greater trade cooperation and additional brand extensions (Kotler and Keller, 2009, p. 131). There was consistent brand reinforcement with every product as CallawayÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing methods always conveyed what the brand represented, what core benefits it supplied, and what needs it satisfied. Additionally, Callaway conveyed how the brand made superior products that were strong, favorable, and unique. Various consumer spending and golfing behaviors left Callaway no choice but to change his marketing strategies. Callaway realized they could not depend on their 1982 original marketing strategy. Callaway believed there was no brand loyalty when it came to golfers. The bottom line was that golfers tend to purchase golf clubs they think will improve their game and will often blame the golf equipment for their lack of skill (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 4). Callaway knew their products had to be unique. Callaway also knew as the popularity of the game increased, golf equipment had to also increase in purpose and design. In 1998, Callaway experienced a decline in profits. The company lost $27 million because sales dropped 17%. Consequently, Ely Callaway realized he would have to change the way his company had been doing business. He refocused Calloway Golf CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å". . . retail channels, new-product development, and marketing strategiesÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). One force that drove Callaway to continuously change his strategy was the life span of the golf equipment. Callaway was quick at determining whether a product was a money maker or not. He measured the profit growth of a product within the first two years the product was launched. If sales decreased within the first two years, the product design was redesigned and Ã¢â¬Å"improved. Ã¢â¬ This could possibly lead to excessive inventories of one product and shortage of another. Through evaluation and control methods, Callaway was able to make the best product marketing decisions for the bottom line. Annual plan controls helped determine if the new product results were being achieved. Profitability controls determined if the new product was making or losing money. Efficiency controls balanced the spending and marketing expenditures. Strategic controls confirmed whether the company was targeting the best opportunities with the retailers, media, and advertising (Kotler-Keller, 2009, p. 331-333). Richard Helmstetter, vice president and chief of new products, joined Callaway Hickory Stick, Inc. in 1986. He transformed CGC Ã¢â¬Å". . . from a niche producer to an innovation powerhouse. . . Ã¢â¬ (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 2). Helmstetter viewed research and development differently than others in the industry. He challenged the scientists, engineers, and golfers he had hired to answer questions like Ã¢â¬Å"Where does backspin come from? Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Why does a shot on the club toe hook left instead of right? Ã¢â¬ (p. 2). Helmstetter was correct in believing that by answering these types of questions the company would create better clubs. New product innovations included the development of the S2H2 (short, straight, hollow, hosel) model which redistributed the weight of the hosel. This allowed the weight to be better utilized elsewhere in the club. Following the S2H2 model was the development of the Big Bertha. It was a club with a bigger club head. The larger head allowed for fewer mishit shots and a better drive. This allowed the average player to have a better experience when playing, which led to loyalty to Callaway, despite the cost. Callaway found it challenging being caught in the middle of a changing marketing communication environment. Callaway had to take a deep look at the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing communication mix and decide if it was still effective. The marketing communication mix includes: advertising, sales promotion, events and experiences, public relations and publicity, direct marketing, interactive marketing, word-of-mouth marketing, and personal selling (Kotler-Keller, 2009, pp. 275-276). Callaway Golf Company did very little advertising. Callaway felt that word of mouth was the best way to promote his clubs Word of mouth marketing was what golfers used excessively. Whether a golfer wanted the latest, greatest style of club or testified to the improvement of a stroke due to the club, word of mouth marketing was huge amongst golfers because of the amount of time golfers spent with each other during a round of golf. Callaway knew that most non-professional golfers played in foursomes and would give live demonstrations each time they played. Furthermore, he built a premium product and recruited professional golfers who were the leaders in the sport to promote his products. These endorsements validated the products quality and superior technology. The professional golfers Ã¢â¬Å"not under contractual obligationsÃ¢â¬ used Callaway products because of the performance enhancement the clubs provided. Eli Callaway knew his company had enjoyed many years of positive growth and he knows that many more years of positive growth lay ahead. Additionally, he knew that he would always be faced with decisions concerning what products to develop, what accounts need to be closed, what retail relationships should be developed, and what marketing strategy should be employed. Ã¢â¬Å"When asked if CGC could stay ahead of the competition, he said, citing NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s first law of motion, Ã¢â¬ËNo problem. Bodies in motion tend to remain in motion. Ã¢â¬â¢ He continued, Ã¢â¬ËItÃ¢â¬â¢s a hell of a story, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not over yetÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Lal and Prescott, 2000, p. 14). References Kotler, P. Keller, K. L. (2009). Analyzing consumer markets: A framework for marketing management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Lal, R. Prescott, E. D. (2000). Calloway Golf Company. Pearson custom business resources. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Case Analysis of Callaway Golf Company, (2009, May 16,). Retrieved on April, 5, 2011 from http://www. docshare. com/Ã¢â¬ ¦ /Case-analysis-of-Callaway-Golf-Company2 How to cite Callaway Golf Company, Papers
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Note that all companies including MS can only apply any or all of the three generic strategies,that is, cost leadership, differentiation, and focus(Nonaka et al, 1997). Considering one of MSÃ¢â¬â¢s core products (clothing), it implements a focus strategy, concentrating on a narrow segment (a particular buyer group (executives), market segment (high-end), product feature (uniqueness) and further differentiate the segments as perfect and classic, autograph and per una. Kotler et al defined market segmentation as ways of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of needs, characteristics or behaviour who might require separate products or marketing mixes. It is a step that leads to successful business positioning as it helps the operation procedure of the company. Types of market segmentation are: Demographic Psychographic Geographic Behavioural Market segmentation allows MS to treat similar customers in similar ways, whilst distinguishing between otherwise customer groups. We will write a custom essay sample on Individual Analysis of Marks Spencers Operations. or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page MS uses demographic and psychographic segmentations to select its target markets for its products (focus strategy). MS targets its customers by age, income, social class, and occupation. MS targets the 30 plus age group with high income and executive occupation. MS also bases its market segmentation through value. Many products in MSÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing range have premium-priced, high quality segment , a mid-priced segment and a low-price segment. In such a market, fashion and quality differences can outweigh price variations. MS segmentation was geared towards creation of a Niche, claiming huge market shares as market leader and pioneering by innovation. They provided three successful range of Womenswears in the Autumn and springs of 2001. The performances objectives of MS acquires quality, speed, dependability, flexibility, cost, uniqueness, and perfections in all their ranges. The operations management understood the order winners and qualifiers as they listened to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ comments. MS ClothingsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ranges and Their Market Segments. Per una per unaÃ is a range of female clothing sold at MS stores, launched Ã as a joint venture between MS and George Davies. The brand name meansÃ for oneÃ (woman) in Italian. It has been a major success for the company,Ã and in October 2004, Marks Spencer bought the brand in a ? 125 million, two-year service contract with George Davies. This range is a demographic and psychographic segmentations, focusing on ; -gender (female) -age (25-35years) personalty (fashion-conscious) -Income (high earner) Logo of per una Demographic segement of per una serves women of 25-35ages, who attach much interest to fashion. This also complimented the psychographic segments as women who earn high to create personalty. Autograph. Autograph range of clothings is synonymous to Ã¢â¬Å" hands of the real personsÃ¢â¬ , the use of original design from the known names of world reckoned designers within the Industry. MS employed these best hands to help present products for their Psychographic segmented customers. Although it was supplied to few shops, it however catered for social, lifestyle and personality variables in this segment. The social aspect of this segment was also pronounced during the lunching of Philip TreacyÃ¢â¬â¢s hat collection in March, 2001 for women and men of various lifestyle (achievers, strivers and strugglers). Perfect and Classic Collections This range of clothings from MS is providing flexibility of time and style to their customers. The demographic and psychographic segmentations of perfect and classics can be highlighted as: -gender (both sexes); -lifestyle (achiever,strivers or strugglers); -family life cycle; -personality (matured as in classic). In the demographic segment, MS focused on both male and female and any form of family cycle, that is, single or married. Maturity creates a perfect intrusion for the psychographic segment of this range of MS range. Order Winners and Qualifiers The order winners and qualifiers provide background for distinguishing between the different competitive factors that operations may choose to emphasize. The basis of the classification is that different competitive factors can play different roles in determining the competitive contribution of the operations function. Hill said order? winning competitive factors are held to be those on which better performance will result in more business, or an increased chance of gaining more business. Improving or increasing winners level often leads to more orders. Qualifying competitive factors or qualifiers are those for which performance has to be above a particular level in order for the product or service offered to be considered by the customer, otherwise do not appreciably affect the customers buying decision(Hayes et al, 2005). Hence there is less to appreciate in terms of profit if increased more than the qualifiers level. There is need to redirect competitve priorities and creating perfect strategic fit in order to attain order qualifiers from order winner. A useful way to examine a firms ability to be succesful in the market is to identify the order winners. An order winner is a criterion that customers use to differentiate the services or products of one firm from those of another. Order Winners and Qualifiers of Per una. Per una range will increase its customers when the operations management maintains and improves its exclusive designs and inclusion of large sizes within the range. Order Winners and Qualifiers of Autograph Cost of this range can attain lowest state to increase customer base numbers. Operation management hence needed to produce in larger volume to for good cost of productions and profits. Order Winners and Qualifiers of perfect and classic collections This range of collections increase in quality and introduction of other larger sizes stands a chance of providing the order winners. Diversification of the range may be a order qualifier. Performance Objectives The need for a well-defined set of objectives for specific task in any organization must rely wholly on operation management. (Flaherty, 1996). The competitive factors of several companies can be identified with their operation performance objectives. Marks and Spencer go a long way in adding uniqueness to clothings. This provide branding for the ranges of clothings as observed in the five basic performance objectives. Per una Performance Objectives In dealing with all customers of MS, the operations have adapted to provide far enough flexibility in the availability of the range to the satisfactions of the focussed segment. In providing the best of the erformance of this range, the operation management employed outsourcing companies and suppliers to provide awesome quality acceptable from Europe to Asia at the possible economies of scales. Autograph Performance Objectives Operaton management uses their basic quality coupled with uniqueness in this range of clothings. In the cost of production, the management moved to Portugal from UK to achieve lower economies of sclaes. The management noticed that dependability and flexibility are paramount, therefore, engaged several designers to have varieties in their best forms. MS suppy chain was re-designed to reduce the cumbersomeness and lengthy supplies of finished and un-finished materials. This provided customers with timely availabilities of this range in their scattered shops within designers boutique environment.